Spinal lumbar fusion may be done by itself or along with surgery to remove bone and tissue that are narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the spinal cord and/or the spinal nerves.

A lumbar laminectomy is also known as an open decompression and is typically performed to alleviate pain caused by neural impingement that can result from lumbar spinal stenosis.

Baclofen is a medication that treats stiff muscles and spasms, a condition called spasticity, that can happen to people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other nerve diseases.

A spinal cord stimulator is a device used to exert pulsed electrical signals to the spinal cord to control chronic pain. In general, neurostimulation works by applying an electrical current to the source of chronic pain.

The spinal cord and its associated structures are rare sites of tumor occurrence. The most common tumors developing from tissues within the spinal cord are known as astrocytomas or ependymomas.

Fracture of the odontoid of the axis is a common injury in the cervical spine. Its treatment remains quite challenging because of the associated risk owing to the complex anatomy of the craniocervical junction.

Spinal cord trauma simply means damage to the spinal cord. It may result from direct injury to the cord itself or indirectly from disease of the surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels.

A cervical arthroplasty is a disk replacement procedure to remove and replace problem discs in your neck. This is an alternative procedure to the ACDF, where instead of a fusion of bone graft, an artificial disc is used.

An anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a procedure used to treat cervical herniated discs by surgery through the front of the neck. The procedure is actually made up of two parts.

Discectomy is a surgery to remove herniated disc material that is pressing on a nerve root or the spinal cord in your lower back. It tends to be done as microdiscectomy, which uses a special microscope to view the disc and nerves.